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  • 司楠,许明珠,董兰芳,程光平,麻艳群,张亚军,董升辉,古昌辉,程蔓,韦云勇.不同鲢鳙配比对池塘浮游动物群落结构和养殖效能的影响[J].广西科学,2023,30(5):899-909.    [点击复制]
  • SI Nan,XU Mingzhu,DONG Lanfang,CHENG Guangping,MA Yanqun,ZHANG Yajun,DONG Shenghui,GU Changhui,CHENG Man,WEI Yunyong.Effects of Different Proportions of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp on Community Structure and Breeding Efficiency of Zooplankton in Ponds[J].Guangxi Sciences,2023,30(5):899-909.   [点击复制]
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不同鲢鳙配比对池塘浮游动物群落结构和养殖效能的影响
司楠1, 许明珠2, 董兰芳2, 程光平1,2, 麻艳群1, 张亚军1, 董升辉1, 古昌辉1, 程蔓1, 韦云勇1
0
(1.广西大学动物科学技术学院, 广西南宁 530004;2.广西海洋研究所有限责任公司, 广西北海 536000)
摘要:
探究不同鲢鳙配比对多品种鱼类混养池塘水体浮游动物群落结构和养殖效能的影响,筛选出基于优良水质和产量的多品种混养的鲢鳙配比,为其规模化生态化养殖提供科学参考。设置鲢鳙配比为1∶1 (A组)、3∶7 (B组)和1∶9 (C组)3个试验组,每组同时配养相同密度的青鱼(Mylopharyngodon piceus)、鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)、鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)、鲮鱼(Cirrhinus molitorella)和胡子鲇(Clarias fuscus),进行为期194 d的养殖试验,期间共进行7次浮游动物样本采集和2次生长指标测定,分析各组浮游动物的群落结构和养殖效能指标。结果发现,A、B、C 3组试验组共鉴定出浮游动物4类30种,其中轮虫种类最多,均占55%以上;B组的浮游动物种数最多,比A、C组分别高8.00%、3.85%;各组浮游动物密度为57-253 ind./L,生物量为0.32-8.22 mg/L。浮游动物Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H)、Margalef丰富度指数(D)及Pielou均匀度指数(J)均为B组最高,分别为2.14、0.97和0.87,且β-中污染和重污染次数最少,表明B组水质优于A组和C组。鲢鱼(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)的增重率、特定生长率和肥满度均为B组最大,其增重率和特定生长率较C组显著提升,分别提高24.92%和3.81%;鳙鱼(Aristichthys nobilis)的增重率、特定生长率和肥满度均为A组最大,其增重率和特定生长率较C组显著提升,分别提高18.43%和3.50%,但与B组无显著差异。B组池塘试验鱼平均增重率、存活率和单位面积产量最高,分别为16824.53%、93.90%和1.42 kg/m2,较C组显著提升,分别提高12.49%、1.90%和19.33%;B组饲料系数(1.04)最低,较C组(1.30)降低20%,两组间差异显著。总体上,“3∶7”的鲢鳙配比有利于多品种鱼类混养池塘水体生态健康,能够提高浮游动物群落多样性,降低饲料能耗并增加养殖效能。
关键词:  鲢鳙配比  浮游动物  群落结构  多样性指数  养殖效能  生态养殖
DOI:10.13656/j.cnki.gxkx.20231121.009
投稿时间:2022-11-05修订日期:2023-01-30
基金项目:广西重点研发计划项目(桂科AB21220019)和罗非鱼等淡水物种生态养殖集成技术创新与示范项目(桂科AA17204095-2)资助。
Effects of Different Proportions of Silver Carp and Bighead Carp on Community Structure and Breeding Efficiency of Zooplankton in Ponds
SI Nan1, XU Mingzhu2, DONG Lanfang2, CHENG Guangping1,2, MA Yanqun1, ZHANG Yajun1, DONG Shenghui1, GU Changhui1, CHENG Man1, WEI Yunyong1
(1.College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530004, China;2.Guangxi Institute of Oceanology Co., Ltd., Beihai, Guangxi, 536000, China)
Abstract:
To screen out the proportions of silver carp and bighead carp based on excellent water quality and yield and provide scientific reference for large-scale ecological culture,the effects of different proportions of silver carp and bighead carp on the community structure and breeding efficiency of zooplankton in polyculture ponds of multiple species of fish were explored.Three experimental groups with the ratio of silver carp to bighead carp of 1∶1 (group A),3∶7 (group B) and 1∶9 (group C) were set up.Each group was equipped with the same density of Mylopharyngodon piceus, Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Cirrhinus molitorella and Clarias fuscus at the same time.The culture experiment lasted for 194 d,during which 7 zooplankton samples were collected and 2 growth indexes were measured.The zooplankton community structure and breeding efficiency indexes in each group were analyzed.The results showed that a total of 30 species of zooplankton in four categories were identified in the three experimental ponds in groups A,B and C,among which Rotifers were the most abundant species,all accounting for more than 55%.The number of zooplankton species in group B was the highest,which was 8.00% and 3.85% higher than that in groups A and C,respectively.The density and biomass of zooplankton in each group were 57-253 ind./L and 0.32-8.22 mg/L,respectively.The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H),Margalef richness index (D) and Pielou evenness index (J) of zooplankton were the highest in group B,which were 2.14,0.97 and 0.87,respectively,and the number of β-moderate pollution and heavy pollution was the least,indicating that the water quality of group B was better than that of group A and group C.The weight gain rate,specific growth rate and fatness of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in group B were the highest,and the weight gain rate and specific growth rate were significantly higher than those in group C,which increased by 24.92% and 3.81%,respectively.The weight gain rate,specific growth rate and fatness of Aristichthys nobilis were the highest in group A,and the weight gain rate and specific growth rate were significantly higher than those in group C,which increased by 18.43% and 3.50%,respectively,but there was no significant difference with group B.The average weight gain rate,survival rate and output per unit area of fish in group B were the highest with 16824.53%,93.90% and 1.42 kg/m2,respectively,which were significantly higher than those in group C,increasing with 12.49%,1.90% and 19.33%,respectively.The feed coefficient of group B (1.04) was the lowest,which was 20% lower than that of group C (1.30),and the difference between the two groups was significant.In general,the “3∶7” ratio of silver carp and bighead carp is beneficial to the ecological health of multiple species of fish in polyculture ponds,which can improve the diversity of zooplankton community,reduce feed energy consumption and increase breeding efficiency.
Key words:  silver carp and bighead ratio  zooplankton  community structure  diversity index  breeding efficiency  ecological culture

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